Brian Robert Pearce
|Brian Pearce busked the streets
and bars of Europe between the years 1994 and 2000. In addition he
busked in New York while participating in the TIGHTROPE musical, a play
written by Ken Post [ with Bonnie Burns].
The journal exists, at present, as approx. 750,000 hand written words formatted in about 55 segments
|Some of my
Lost Wandering Blues Jazz Band
Music and lyrics
History of Hornstrandir
COMPLETE ONLINE JOURNAL SEGMENTS:
Tortoise & Hare
New Clear Winter
Monster in NY
Things we must do
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|ICELAND ROOTS 2
(update - May, 2011)
Hornstrandir, the most northern region on Iceland’s northwest coast.
children with Bjarneyjar
(37) Haraldur “harfagri” Halfdanarson, (Fair hair) b. in 850, d. in 933,
(36) Sigurdur “hrisi” Haraldsson, b. in 890, d. in 934,
(35) Halfdan Sigurdsson, b. in 930,
(34) Sigurdur “syr” Halfdanarson, b. in 980, d. in 1018
(33) Haraldur “Hardraada” Sigurdsson, (“Hard or Severe”) b. in 1015, d. 25. Sept. 1066
(32) Olafur “kyrri” Haraldsson, (the Tranquil or Easygoing) b. in 1050, d. 22. Sept. 1093
(31) Magnus “ berfaettur “ Olafsson, (Barefoot, or Bare leg,) b. in 1073, d. 24. Aug. 1103
(29) Sigurdur “ munnur “ Haraldsson, b. in 1133, d. 10. June. 1155,
(28) Sverrir Sigurdsson, b. in 1152, d. 9. Mar. 1202
(27) Hakon Sverrisson, b. in 1178, d. 1. Jan. 1204
(26) Hakon “gamli” Hakonarson, b. in 1204, d. 15. Dec. 1263
(33) Godwin Ulfnadsson, b. in 1000, d. 15. April 1053. Earl of Wessex.
(32) Tostig Godwinson, b. in 1025, d. 25. Sept. 1066.
(31) Skuli Tostason, b. in 1052
(30) Asulfur Skulason, b. in 1085
(29) Guttormur Asulfsson, b. in 1115
(28) Bardur Guttormsson, b. in 1150, d. 3. April. 1194
(27) Skuli Bardarson, b. in 1189, d. 21. May. 1240
(33) Sveyn I “Forkbeard” Haraldsson, born in 960, Denmark, died, 3. Feb. 1014, Gainsborough
(31) Sveyn II Estrithson, born in 1019, died, 29 April 1076
(30) Erik I “the Evergood” Svendsson, born about 1070 in Denmark, died, 10. July 1103
(29) Knut Lavard Eriksson, born in 1096, died in 7. Jan. 1131, Danish Prince.
(28) Valdimar I “mikli” Knutson (the Great) born, 14. Jan 1131, died, 12 May 1182, King of Denmark
(27) Valdimar II “siguraeli” (Victorious) b. 28. June 1170, d. 28. Mar. 1241
(26) Eirikur Valdimarsson (plough money) b. in 1216, d. 10. Aug. 1250,
(25) Magnus “lagabietir” Hakonarson, (Make the law better) b. in 1238, d. 9. May. 1280,
(24) Hakon “haleggur” Magnusson, (long legs) b. in 1270, d. in 1319
Winston Churchill, Princess Diana, Prince William, Prince Harry,
(22) Jon Hafporsson, b. in 1310, d. in 1397
(21) Hakon Jonsson, b. in 1330, d. in 1392,
(19) Rognvaldur Keneksson, b. in 1400,
(18) Nikulas Rognvaldsson, b. in 1430
(17) Gottschalk “grimmi” Nikulasson, (Cruel or Fierce) b. in 1469, d. 28. Dec. 1520.
(15) Egill Jonsson, b. in 1510, d. in 1560
(7) Jon Teitsson, b. in 1774, d. 24. April. 1845
(5) Palmi Jonsson, b. 27. Sept. 1852, d. 3. Nov. 1914,
(9) Bjarni Jonsson, b. in 1734
(8) Halldor Bjarnason, b. 1762, d. 27. June. 1819,
(7) Bjarni Hallorsson, b. 26. Nov 1789, d. 16. Mar 1879
(4) Gudmundur Palmason, b. 28. Jan. 1878, d. 21. Feb. 1951
(2) Michael Philip Pearce, b. 20. July. 1950
Brian Robert Pearce, b. 9. May. 1954
(32) Astrid Sveynsdottir, born 997, Denmark, died in England
(26) Margret Skuladottir, b. in 1210, Norway, Queen of Norway. Married (26) Hakon “gamli” Hakonason,
(23) Agnes Hakonardottir, b. in 1290, Norway. Norwegian Princess. Married Hafpor Jonsson, b. in 1280, d. in 1320,
(20) (Onefnd, Name unknown) Hakonardottir, b. in 1370, Norway. Married Kenek Gottskalksson, b. in 1370,
(16) Kristin Gottskalksdottir, b. in 1488, d. 1578, Iceland. Married Jon Einarsson, b. in 1490, d. in 1544
(12) Gudrun Bjornsdottir, b. in
1625, d. in 1660, Iceland. Married Arni Einarsson, b.
in 1620, d. in 1686.
Astridur Jonsdottir, b. in 1716, d. 22. Nov.
1784, Iceland. Married Jon
Palsson, b. in
1710, d. 15. Aug. 1791.
Great Grandfather Palmi Jonsson andGrandparents Gudmundur Palmason and Ketilridur.......
Ingolfur Arnarson, the first settler in Iceland
A reconstruction of a Viking farmstead in southern Iceland
A warrior at the battle of Fulford
Haraldur Hardraada “Viking King ofNorway”
The Memorial Stone of the battle of Fulford
A reconstruction of a Viking invading force, sailing up the river Ouse.
Snorri Sturluson memorial andbathing pool at his home in Reykholtwestern Iceland.
Akershus castle Oslo Norway
Skalholt in southern Iceland
volcanic craters between mount Heklaand Landmannalaugar
The Icelandic fishermen used mainly small rowing boats until the 19th century
a map of the West Fjords of Northern Iceland
My Grandfather Gudmundur Palmason
THE HISTORY OF MY ICELANDIC AND ROYAL ANCESTORS (ON MY MOTHERS SIDE OF THE FAMILY )
Great Grandfather Palmi Jonsson and Grandparents Gudmundur Palmason and Ketilridur
Porkelsdottir and their children, taken at home in Rekavik bak Latur Hornstrandir north west Iceland in about 1912 ?.
|To make this
Genealogy easy to follow, I have colour coded my Grandparents' ancestral
lines. Grandfather's ancestral line will be in Blue, Grandmother's will
be in Red,
Danish in Green, when they are linked together it will be in Black.The
numbers by the names in this Genealogy
indicate the number of generations down the line, and it starts with
which is Harald the first, King of
Norway, born in 850, right through to my brother's daughter, who is
number (1) Rachel, born in
Grandfather's ancestry begins with the birth of King Haraldur “harfagri” Halfdanarson, (Fair hair) in the year 850.
Halfdanarson, (Fair hair) born in 850, died in 933. He was the founder and
first King of
Norway. He succeeded, on the death of his father Halfdan the Black Gudrodsson, in A,D. 860, to the sovereignty of several
small and somewhat scattered kingdoms in Vestfold, which lay chiefly in southeast Norway. In 866, Harald made the first of a
series of conquests over the many petty kingdoms which then composed Norway, including Varmland in Sweden, which had
sworn allegiance to the Svea king Erik Eymundsson. In 872, after a great victory at Hafrsfjord near Stavanger, Harald found
himself king over the whole country. His realm was, however, threatened by dangers from without, as large numbers of his
opponents had taken refuge, not only in Iceland (then recently discovered), but also in the Orkney islands, Shetland islands,
Hebrides, Faroe islands and in Scotland itself. From these winter quarters he sallied forth to harry Norway, as well
as the rest of northern Europe. However, he faced strong opposition. Many Norwegian chieftains that were wealthy and respected posed a
threat to Harald; therefore, they were subjected to much harassment from him prompting them to vacate the land.
This course of action led to the major settling of Iceland and beyond. In a way, King
Harald inadvertently contributed much to modern Icelandic society and the writing of the Icelandic Sagas. The population was increased by
“malcontents” from Norway, who resented Harald’s claim of rights of taxation over lands which the possessors appear to
have previously held in absolute ownership. Harald was also impelled to make an expedition to the west to clear the islands
and Scottish mainland of Viking opponents. A great number of them fled to Iceland, which grew into an independent commonwealth
while the Scottish isles fell under Norwegian rule. Harald died at a good old age of 83 years, in 933, having had eight wives
and 23 children. I am a direct ancestor through two of his sons, Pordur vikingsson Haraldsson, and Sigurdur “hrisi” Haraldsson, and it is through Sigurdur that I will continue this ancestral line.
“hrisi” Haraldsson, b. in 890, died in 934, at the battle of Tunsberg. King of
Hringarikis, Oslo area in south eastern Norway. He became king of
Hringarikis, when his father king Harald, divided the lands in Norway
amongst his sons. Sigurdur and his brother Olaf were killed by
their brother King Eirik, at the battle of Tunsberg in
(35) Halfdan Sigurdsson, b. in 930, King of Hringarikis Norway.
(34) Sigurdur “syr” Halfdanarson, b. in 980, died in 1018, King of Hringarkis, Norway. Married Asta Gudbrandsdottir, born in 980. Queen of Hringarkis Norway.
Ingolfur Arnarson, the first settler in Iceland A reconstruction of a Viking farmstead in southern Iceland
It was during
of king Harald “harfagri“ that Ingolfur
left Norway for Iceland, after a
quarrel with a powerful Earl. In the
year 874 A.D, Ingolfur named his new home and farm Reykjavik, which means Smoky Bay, after the white steam or smoke
he saw rising from the hot springs. This is now the site of the capital city of Iceland, Reykjavik.
A warrior at the battle of Fulford Haraldur Hardraada “Viking King of Norway”
(33) Haraldur “Hardraada” Sigurdsson, (“Hard
or Severe”) born in 1015, died, 25. Sept. 1066, at the battle of
Stamford bridge, England. King of Norway from 1046. Married Thora
Thorbergsdottir, born in 1010, Queen of Norway. When Harald’s
half-brother king Olaf II of Norway was killed in 1030, while defending
his throne from Canute, Harald (wounded in the battle) left Norway with
a band of warriors into exile. In 1031 he reached Russia and served in
the army of the king of Rus. Later in 1034, Harald and his men left for
the city Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Harald
and his men joined the elite mercenary unit known as the Varangian
Guard. Harald proved himself in battle and gained the respect of his
fellow guardsmen. Soon he became a commander of the Byzantine Emperor’s
army where he fought and won many great victories in Greece, Asia
minor, Syria, Jerusalem, Africa and Sicily. Through ingenuity, Harald
and his men were able to besiege and defeat a number of castles. Harald
was able to build a large fortune in plunder from his victories. He
returned to Norway after his service to the Byzantine Empire in 1045,
and after seven years of civil war, established himself as the king of
HARALD HAADRAADA’S INVASION OF ENGLAND
In September 1066, Hardraada, with Tostig Godwinson, invaded Northumbria to conquer England. He planned to claim the English throne and restore to Tostig his Earldom. There is a story that he had been promised the throne by King Harthacnut, but had waived the claim during the lifetime of Harthacnut’s successor, Edward the Confessor. Whether Harald planned to conquer the whole of England, or just as much of it as he could get his hands on, is uncertain. Having destroyed the town of Scarborough they sailed up the river Humber, then the river Ouse. They landed and set up their base at Riccall, then moved northwards along the banks of the river towards York. On the 20th Sept 1066, Harald and Tostig’s army met and defeated an army, raised by the Earls Morcar, Edwin and Waltheof, at the battle of Fulford. It was the largest shield wall battle in history. Five days later, on the 25th Sept 1066, both King Harald and Tostig were defeated and killed at the battle of Stamford bridge, near York, by the unexpected arrival of king Harold and his army. It proved to be the beginning of the end of Scandinavian influence over England. Ironically, it was the Norse dynasty established in Normandy that would ruthlessly ensure this and re-align the English sphere of influence to France
(32) Olafur “kyrri” Haraldsson, (the Tranquil or Easygoing) born in 1050, died, 22. Sept. 1093, King of Norway from 1066. Married Thora Rognvaldsdottir, born in 1040, Queen of Norway. After the Battle of Stamford Bridge Olaf sailed with his fleet from England with Tostig's son Skule, who became the kings foster son and married the daughter of Hardraada's sister Ingrid (a link with my Grandmother's ancestral line). A feature of King Olafs peaceful reign was the increasing importance of the towns. including Bergen (founded by Olaf in c.1070). He was the first Norwegian King who learned how to read and write. He strengthened the power of the king and instituted the system of guilds in Norway.(31) Magnus “ berfaettur “ Olafsson, (Barefoot, or Bare Leg,) born in 1073, died 24. Aug, 1103, was King of Norway from 1093. His nickname, barefoot or bareleg, is commonly understood to come from his habit of wearing Gaelic-style clothing, leaving lower legs bare, this Scottish style is a precursor of later kilts. In 1098 he conquered the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man. In 1102 he marched from Dublin westward in his effort to conquer Ireland and was victorious for a time, but he died fighting a battle in a boggy field in an area known as white rocks in Ulster Northern Ireland. He is also an ancestor of mine though his daughter Thora, who married Loftur Saemundsson, an Icelander who comes down to me though my Great Grand Mother, Gudridur Sigurdardottir.
(30) Haraldur “ gilli “ Magnusson, b. in in 1103,
died, 13. Dec. 1136, King of Norway. His mistress, Thora
Guttormsdottir, was born in 1105. He was born in Ireland, an
illegitimate son of Magnus. After the death of King Sigurdur, his
half brother Magnus became king. War broke out between Harald and
Magnus, and after several battles Harald captured Magnus and took the
throne. He then had Magnus blinded and thrown into prison. This was the
beginning of the Norwegian civil wars, which lasted from 1130 to
1240. From Haraldur “gilli” to Hakon Sverrisson the ancestral
line is very questionable, because of his paternity.
(29) Sigurdur “ munnur “ Haraldsson, b. in 1133, died, 10. June.
1155, King of Norway from 1137. His mistress Gunnhildur, born in 1135.
He had two children with her, a son Sverrir and a daughter Cecilia, who
married Earl Burdur Guttormsson, (linking to my Grandmother’s line). He
became king after the murder of his father. The young king’s supporters
fought several battles against the pretenders Sigurd Slembedjakn and
Magnus the Blind. These two were finally defeated and killed in a
battle at Hvaler in 1139. After this followed a period of peace. Then
hostility broke out between Sigurd and co-king brother Inge,
because Inge claimed that Sigurd was planning to have him dethroned.
Sigurd denied the accusations, and a few days later one of Inge’s
guards was killed by one of Sigurd’s. In 1155 it all came to an end when Inge
ordered his men to assault the house where Sigurd and a few of his men
were residing. Sigurd and his men were easily overwhelmed and killed by
(28) Sverrir Sigurdsson, b. in 1152, died, 9. Mar. 1202, King of Norway. His concubine Astridur Hroadottir, born in 1155. His claim to be the son of king Sigurdur is very questionable. Some historians claim that he is the son of a Faeroe Islands comb maker. Sverrir was a talented improviser, both in political and military life. He was leader of the Birkebeiner party, and a very skilful military commander during the on going Norwegian civil wars. There were two opposing sides who eventually became known as Baglers and Birkebeiners. Their rallying point was typically a male of the royal line, who served as party figurehead, opposing the rule of his rival from the contesting party. At the sea battle of Fimeite in 1184, Sverrir and his fleet of ships met and defeated the fleet of King Magnus Erlingsson, who drowned when his ship was sunk during the battle. After the death of king Magnus Sverrir ruled as sole king of Norway. Differences with the Church, however, led to his excommunication in 1194.
(27) Hakon Sverrisson, b. in 1178, died, 1. Jan. 1204, King of Norway from 1202. His mistress Inga Af Varteigi, born in 1180. The second illegitimate son of King Sverrir. He invited the exiled bishops to return to Norway and made overtures towards the Bagler party to ease the struggle between Church and King. At his death the questionable period of this ancestral line ends.
(26) Hakon “gamli” Hakonarson, b. ( Hakon the Old) born in 1204, died, 15. Dec. 1263, Kirkwell, the Orkney Islands. King of Norway, Greenland from 1261 and Iceland 1262. On the 25 May, 1225, in Bergen, married (26) Margret Skuladottir, born in 1210. Queen of Norway, the daughter of Earl Skuli Bardarson, (Linking to my Grandmothers ancestral line which is in red). Haakon succeeded the throne at the death of his father-in-law’s brother King Inge Bardarson in 1217. In the earlier part of his reign much of the royal power was in the hands of Skuli Bardarson. The relationship between Skuli and Haakon became more and more strained as Haakon came of age and asserted his power. As an attempt to reconcile the two, Haakon married Skule’s daughter Margaret. Despite this, in 1239, warfare between the rivals erupted. It ended in 1240 when Skuli was put to death. This brought an end to the civil war period of Norwegian history, which had lasted from 1130 to 1240. Haakon’s reign from 1240 was marked by internal peace and more prosperity than Norway had known for many years. This was the start of what has traditionally been known as the Golden age of the Norwegian medieval kingdom. In 1247, King Haakon finally achieved recognition by the pope, who sent cardinal William of Sabina to Bergen to crown him. Abroad, Haakon mounted a campaign against the Danish province of Halland in 1256. In 1261 the Norse community in Greenland agreed to submit to the Norwegian King, and in 1262, Haakon achieved one of his long-standing ambitions when Iceland, racked by internal comflict decided to do the same.
Grandmother's ancestral line begins with Godwin Ulfnadsson, Earl of Wessex. top
(33) Godwin Ulfnadsson, b. in 1000, died, 15. April 1053. Earl of
Wessex. Married a cousin of King Canute, Gytha Thorgilsdottir, born in
1000. Godwin was, after the monarch, the most powerful man in England
during the reigns of Canute, Harold I Harefoot and Harthacnut, and
Edward the Confessor. He rose from the lowest reaches of the
Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and was appointed Earl of Wessex by King Canute
in 1018, which made him the most powerful man in England after the
King. Following Canute’s death in 1035, Alfred, son of Ethelred the
Unready and brother of Edward, mounted an unsuccessful invasion of
England from Normandy. Godwin won the support of Canute’s successor
Harold I Harefoot by capturing
and killing Alfred at Ely, perhaps accidentally, when he ordered the
prince’s eyes to be gouged out. After the death of Harold I
Harefoot in 1040 and (three years later) Harthacnut, Godwin threw his
support behind Edward in 1043. The throne returned to the Anglo-Saxons.
The new king was so grateful for the Earl’s help that he married
Godwin’s daughter Edith in 1045. Godwin’s struggle against the king’s
Norman favourites came to a head in 1051, when King Edward gave Godwin
an order to sack the city of Dover after some Norman Knights were
attacked and killed there, Godwin refused and was banished along with
his family into exile. A year later, after receiving support, he sailed
up the River Thames where he was met by a fleet of Royal ships who
refused to attack, and so therefore his Earldom was reluctantly
restored by King Edward.
The Memorial Stone of the battle of Fulford A reconstruction of a Viking invading force, sailing up the river Ouse.
Page 3(32) Tostig Godwinson, b. in 1025, died, 25. Sept. 1066.At the battle of Stamford bridge. Married Judith
in 1052, Married Gudrun Nefsteinsdottir, born in 1055. (The daughter of
Hardraada's sister Ingerid, (a link
with my Grandfathers ancestral Blue line). Skuli and his brother
Ketil Krok sailed with Hardraada's son King Olafur “kyrri”
Haraldsson (the Tranquil or Easygoing) to Norway after the battle of
Stamford Bridge in 1066. Skuli was so beloved by King Olaf that he
adopted him as the king's foster son, and he was given some of the best
properties and land in Norway. He was the commander of King Olaf’s
court-men, spoke at the parliament and played a key role with the
(30) Asulfur Skulason, b. in 1085, Asulf of Reine Norway. Married Pora Skaftadottir, b. in 1090.
(29) Guttormur Asulfsson, b. in 1115, Guttorm of Reine Norway. Married Sigridur Porkelsdottir, b. in 1115. During his life a civil war broke out between King Magnus and his half brother Haraldur “gilli” Magnusson, and after several battles Haraldur captured King Magnus and took the throne, he then had Magnus blinded and thrown into prison. Which was the beginning of the Norwegian civil wars which lasted from 1130 to 1217.
in 1150, died, 3. April. 1194, Bardur of Reine, Norway. He married in
1184 his first wife the Cecilia Sigurdsdottir born 1155, the daughter
of King Sigurdur Haraldsson, (linking
to my Grandfathers line). Sadly she died in 1185 after giving
birth to their son Inge, who later in 1204 became Inge II king of
Norway. Bardur’s second wife was Ragnhildur Erlingsdottir, born
in 1155. He was a prominent lendmann from the Trondelag region, and a
supporter of King Sverre, who brought the birkebeiner party to power in
the late 12th century after years of war against King Magnus
Erlingsson. Before King Inge died in 1217, he appointed his half
brother Skuli Earl and leader of the army. After his death he was
succeeded by Hakon IV.
in 1189, died, 21. May. 1240, Norway. Married Ragnhildur, born in 1190.
Earl Skuli was a tutor to his teenage royal son-in-law King Hakon 4th
of Norway and was involved with his friend Snorri Sturlason Icelandic
historian and politician, in trying to solve the disputes between
Icelandic and Norwegian merchants. In 1239 he raised a military host
and revolted against king Hakon to take power. He won a battle at
Laka in Nannestad, but lost in Oslo. In May 1240 he was defeated by
King Hakon and his army. He sought refuge in Elgeseter monastery in
Nidaros but Hakon’s men burned down the monastery and killed Skuli.
King Hakon, furious at this act of treason and thinking Snorri
Sturluson must also have been implicated in the conspiracy promptly
sent orders to either send Snorri back to Norway or put him to death.
Snorri was then attacked and killed by one of the king's men at his
residence, Reykholt, on the 22. Sept. 1241. Skule’s rivalry for
kingship was the last phase of the civil wars period of Norwegian
history, which lasted from around 1130 to 1240.
Snorri Sturluson's (my ancestor through other greins) memorial and bathing pool at his home in Reykholt western Iceland.
(26) Margret Skuladottir, b. in 1210, Norway, Queen of Norway. Married (26) Hakon “gamli” Hakonason, King of Norway Greenland from 1261 and Iceland 1262. (Linking to my Grandfather's line)
Danish royal line will be in green
Sveyn I “Forkbeard” Haraldsson, born in 960, Denmark, died, 3. Feb. 1014,
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England. Married Sigrid “the Haughty” born
in Sweden, died, in 997. King of Denmark, from 987, King of England,
from 1013. Sveyn was a Viking leader and the father of Canute the
Great. He had by conquest and marriage took control of Scandinavia and,
before his death, England. He attacked Norway, becoming its effective
ruler in the year 1000. Sveyn often attacked England from 994, securing
protection payments (Danegeld) and in 1003-4 avenging the St Brice’s
day massacre of
Danes. In Aug-Dec 1013 he drove King Ethelred the Unready from England and took the English throne.
Astrid Sveynsdottir, born
997, Denmark, died in England. Married the Earl of England, Uif
Thorgilson, born in Halland, Sweden, died, 22. Sept. 1027, England.
Sveyn II Estrithson, born in
1019, died, 29 April 1076. Because of his relationship to Canute the
Great he was a pretender to the throne from his early years. When King
Harthacanute died in 1042, he claimed the Danish Throne, but lost to
Norway’s King Magnus, who made Sweyn an Earl instead. War broke out
between Sweyn and Magnus king of Norway that lasted until 1045. Harald
Hardraada returned to Norway from exile and allied with Sweyn to force
king Magnus to share the throne with Harald Hardraada. In 1047 King
Magnus died, having stated on his deathbed that his kingdom would be
divided up: Harald would get the throne of Norway, while Sweyn would be
king of Denmark. Harald, unwilling to relinquish Denmark, now attacked
Sweyn and fought a long war which dragged on until 1064, when Harald
relinquished his claims to Denmark.
I “the Evergood” Svendsson, born
about 1070 in Denmark, died, 10. July 1103, in Cyprus. King of Denmark
from 1095. Married Bothilde Thorgautsdottir, born in Denmark. Some
Medieval chroniclers portray him as a big strapping man and appealing
to the common people, a loud man who liked parties and who led a rather
dissipated private life. He died at Paphos, Cyprus during a pilgrimage
to Jerusalem as the first king to visit after the city was conquered
during the First Crusade.
Lavard Eriksson, born in
1096, died in 7. Jan. 1131, Danish Prince. Married Ingeborg of
Novgorod, born about 1100. Knut was a chivalrous and popular prince. He
was murdered by his nephew Magnus, who viewed him as a contender to the
Great Grand father was King Harold of England, a link to my
Grandmothers ancestral red line).
I “mikli” Knutson (the Great) born, 14. Jan 1131, died, 12
May 1182, King of Denmark. Married Sofia
of Minsk, born in 1140, died, in 1198, Queen of Denmark. He became King, after defeating his rival King Sweyn III, at the Battle of Grathe Hede in 1157. Valdemar, having outlived all his rival pretenders, became the sole King of Denmark.
Valdimar II “siguraeli” Valdimarsson, (Victorious) born, 28. June 1170, died, 28. Mar. 1241,
King of Denmark. In 1214, married Berengaria, born in 1170, Queen of
Denmark. Daughter of King Sancho 1 Of Portugal. Following his conquests
in north Germany his greatest achievement was the subjugation of
northern Estonians after the decisive Battle of Lyndanisse which took
place near Reval (Tallinn) on June 25, 1219. According to legend a red
cloth with a white cross fell from the sky during the battle, and
from this day on that symbol, called the Dannebrog, has been the Danish
flag. In 1223 Valdimur was captured by his vassal, the Count of
Schwerin and held prisoner for three years. He was released only after
he had been forced to relinquish much of his conquests in Germany. In
1227 Valdimer invaded Northern Germany to regain lost territories but
was defeated at the battle of Bornhoved.
(26) Eirikur Valdimarsson (plough money) b. in 1216, died, 10. Aug. 1250, King of Denmark from 1241. Married Judith Albertsdottir, born in 1220, Queen of Denmark. His short rule was marked by bitter conflicts and civil wars against his brothers. Especially he fought his brother Abel, Duke of Schleswig, who seems to have wanted an independent position and had the support of the counts of Holstein. Erikir also fought the Scanian peasants, who rebelled because of his hard taxes, (e.g. ploughs). This gave him his epithet “plough money”, Danish (Plovpenning). After a victory over brother Abel in 1250 he negotiated a truce with him, but later that year as he travelled through Schleswig he was taken prisoner by his brother and was assassinated. Eric only had daughters surviving from his marriage with Judith of Saxe. The youngest daughter Ingeborg married King Magnus VI of Norway.
Now that my Grandparents' lines are linked together it will be in black
(25) Magnus “lagabietir” Hakonarson, (Make the law better) b. in 1238, d. 9. May. 1280, King of Norway Greenland and Iceland. Married (25) Ingeborg Eiriksdottir, b. in 1244, d. 1287, Queen of Norway, the daughter of Erik 4th Valdimarsson King of Denmark. (linking to the Danish line) Magnus drew up separate new law codes for Norway and a law book, ( Jons book ) for the Icelanders. The first law book for Iceland was issued in 1271, but only partly accepted by the Icelandic parliament. Because of parliamentary and popular reluctance to accept it, the first law book was revised and issued again in 1280, only then when the greater part of it was endorsed and this law book would remain in effect in Iceland for centuries.
(24) Hakon “haleggur” Magnusson,
(long legs) b. in 1270, d. in
1319. King of Norway
Greenland & Iceland. In 1307 he moved his court from Bergen to
Oslo, in to his new castle Akershus, which he had built to protect
Oslo. The castle was first used in battle in 1308, when it successfully
fought off a siege by Swedish duke Erik of Sodermansland. King Hakon
also arranged a marriage between his youngest daughter Ingeborg and the
brother of the Swedish king, when she was one year old. Because King
Hakon Magnusson, had no male heirs, Ingeborg’s son Magnus, inherited
the thrones of Sweden and Norway in 1319, at the age of three. (P.M. Winston
Princess Diana, Prince
Harry,) are some of King Hakon ancestors through
daughter Ingeborg. He is mine, through his illegitimate and oldest
Akershus castle Oslo Norway
(23) Agnes Hakonardottir, b. in 1290, Norway. Norwegian Princess. Married Hafpor Jonsson, b. in 1280, d. in 1320, son of Baron Jon Ivarsson the red of Sudurheimum. Norwegian Statesman. King Hakon transferred the kings Manor Borregaard to his son-in-law Hafpor Jonsson in 1312, so therefore Borregaard estate lost its royal status which it had for 300 years. The royal line comes to a end.
(22) Jon Hafporsson, b. in 1310, d. in 1397, Norway. Norwegian Statesman. Married Birgitta Knutsdottir, b. in 1315. Jon inherited Borregaard Manor from his father. He led a revolt against King Magnus Eriksson in 1333, and was a member of the King’s council 1380.
(21) Hakon Jonsson, b. in 1330, d. in 1392, Norway. Norwegian Statesman. After failing to claim the throne after the death of King Oluf, in 1389 Queen Margrete compelled Chancellor Hakon Jonsson, to except her nephew Erik of Pomerania as King of Norway, later Sweden and Denmark. So therefore uniting the whole of Scandinavia, with the formation of the Kalmar union, in 1397. Even though Hakon Jonsson’s claim to the throne was just as valid as that of Margrete’s pretender.
(20) (Onefnd, Name unknown) Hakonardottir, b. in 1370, Norway. Married Kenek Gottskalksson, b. in 1370, Norwegian Statesman. Onefnd translated into English means No Name. There is no record found of her Christian name, in any of the known record books of that period, of Norwegian history.(19) Rognvaldur Keneksson, b. in 1400, Norwegian Statesman.
(18) Nikulas Rognvaldsson, b. in 1430, Norway. Married Herborg Bardardottir, b. in 1430. Brother of Olafs Rognvaldsson Bishop of Holum in northern Iceland from 1458 to 1495.
(17) Gottschalk “grimmi” Nikulasson, (Cruel or Fierce) b. in 1469, d. 28. Dec. 1520. Bishop of Holum in northern Iceland from 1496 to 1520. His mistress Valgerdur Jonsdottir, b. in 1460. His son Oddur Gottskalksson while on a visit to Norway he became a Lutheran convert and on his return to Iceland (which was still Catholic), secretly translated the New Testament into Icelandic at Skalholt. His translation, printed and published in Denmark in 1540, was the first book ever printed in the Icelandic language.(16) Kristin Gottskalksdottir, b. in 1488, d. 1578, Iceland. Married Jon Einarsson, b. in 1490, d. in 1544. She had witnessed the Reformation in1550 which swept through Iceland, when the Lutheran creed became the main Religion in Iceland. The last Catholic bishop of Holum Jon Arason and his sons after a battle were captured and taken to Skalholt to be kept as prisoners by Danish officials and Icelanders, but they became very afraid men from the north, who were supporters of bishop Jon Arason, would come and rescue them, so they decided to put them to death. On November 7, 1550, they were beheaded in Skalholt. In Iceland this event is regarded as marking the end of the Middle Ages. top
Skalholt in southern Iceland
(15) Egill Jonsson, b. in 1510, d. in 1560, Iceland. Married Gudrun Porleifsdottir, b. in 1520.
(14) Gudrun Egilsdottir, b. in 1545, Iceland. Married Gudmundur Gislason, b. in 1530.
(13) Helga Gudmundsdottir, b. in 1580, d. in 1651, Iceland. Married Bjorn Porleifsson, b. in 1573, d. in 1650.
After the Reformation the Danish king almost entirely neglected to protect his faraway country, Iceland. Occasionally, pirates and other marauders would come to its shores to murder, rob and commit other atrocities. In 1579, English robbers committed a wave of crimes and held a rich nobleman ransom, and in 1615 Spanish whalers caused an uproar, but the Icelanders gathered forces and killed a number of them. In 1627 the country was attacked by pirates from Algeria. They stole and plundered all the valuables they could find, and killed a number of people. On leaving, they took several hundred men, women and children (mostly from the Westman Islands) as captives and sold them into slavery in North Africa. Relatives and others collected money to buy them freedom, but only a few 37 out of 370 captives - succeeded in returning home many years later.
(12) Gudrun Bjornsdottir, b. in 1625, d. in 1660, Iceland. Married Arni Einarsson, b. in 1620, d. in 1686.
(11) Helga Arnadottir, b. in 1659, d. in 1735, Iceland. Married Asgeir Sigurdsson, b. in 1650, d. in 1712. In 1707 a terrible smallpox epidemic broke out in Iceland, which killed about 18,000 people, or more than one third of the population.
(10) Hallbjorg Asgeirsdottir, b. in 1682, Iceland. Married Jon Hannesson, b. in 1678, d. in 1735. (My Grandparents' line separates again with their two daughters Anna, Grandfather's blue line, Astridur, Grandmother's red line.)
I will continue first with my Grandfather's blue line then my Grandmother's red line until they link together again top
(9) Anna Jonsdottir, b. in 1715, Iceland. Married Porsteinn Gudmundsson, b. in 1704, d. 14. May. 1785.(8) Hallbera Porsteinsdottir, b. in 1750, d. 9. Fed. 1805, Iceland. Married Teitur Halldorsson, b. in 1745, d. in 1782. Herself and her son Jon witnessed the terrible Laki volcanic eruptions (1783-1784) Laki is a huge volcanic rift to the west of the vast glacier Vatnajokull in the southeast of Iceland. A gigantic quantity of glowing lava tumbled from these craters in the highlands and down to the lowlands where it spread and eventually covered an area of 565 km, creating the largest lava field in historical times. Numerous farms were damaged or destroyed and people in the region fled in panic. Accompanying the eruptions, toxic gas filled the air. It poisoned vegetation, eventually killing off the animals. An intense shortage of food followed, bringing a terrible famine to most of the country. It has been estimated that between nine and ten thousand people died of starvation in the years 1783-84, and the population fell below 40,000 again. Because of the fallout of ash in the atmosphere, it led to bad Harvests throughout Europe for the next few years. Some Historians have said that this eruption is one of the contributory factors, which led to the French Revolution in 1789.
The picture above of volcanic craters between mount Hekla and Landmannalaugar gives an idea what the Laki craters would look like.
(7) Jon Teitsson, b. in 1774, d. 24. April. 1845, Iceland. Married Silpha Johannesdottir, b. in 1776, d. 6. Oct. 1854. When France lost the Napoleonic wars, Denmark suffered badly because the victors agreed on punishing it for supporting Napoleon, In the settlement of 1814 Norway was taken away from Denmark and giving it to Sweden, so therefore dissolving the union which Iceland and Norway had since 1262.
(6) Silfa Jonsdottir, b.13. April. 1818, d. 3. Mar. 1883, Rekavik bak Latur Hornstrandir Iceland. Married Jon Bjornsson, b. 22. June. 1822, d. 3. Mar. 1887.
(5) Palmi Jonsson, b. 27. Sept. 1852, d. 3. Nov. 1914, Rekavik bak Latur Hornstrandir Iceland . Married Gudridur Sigurdardottir, b. 26. Feb. 1850, d. 30. Dec. 1887. He was a big strong bearded man, a farmer in Rekavik bak Latur. Their son Gudmundur Palmason’s marriage to Ketilridur Porkelsdottir, (linking the ancestral lines together again).
My Grandmother's red ancestral line
Astridur Jonsdottir, b. in 1716, d. 22. Nov.
1784, Iceland. Married Jon
1710, d. 15. Aug.
(9) Bjarni Jonsson, b. in 1734, Iceland. Married Margret Halldorsdottir, b. in 1735, d. in 1806.
(8) Halldor Bjarnason, b. 1762, d. 27. June. 1819, Iceland. Married Ingibjorg Benediktsdottir, b. in 1754, d. 11. June. 1816. Both him and his wife witnessed the terrible volcanic eruptions of Laki in (1783-1784)
(7) Bjarni Hallorsson, b. 26. Nov 1789, d. 16. Mar 1879, Iceland. Married Ingibjorg Hermannsdottir, b. in 1790, d. 22. April 1865.
The Icelandic fishermen used mainly small rowing boats until the 19th century when they acquired larger sailing ships.
(6) Ketilridur Bjarnadottir, b. 19. Sept 1822, d. 16. Mar 1879,Iceland. Married Gisli Halldorsson, b. 24. Jan 1813, d. 13. Jan 1863.
(5) Maria Gisladottir, b. 13. Oct 1843, d. 20. Sept 1888, Iceland. Married Porkell Isleifsson, b. 28. Nov 1841, d. 13. April 1905. Their daughter Ketilridur Porkelsdottir marriage to Gudmundur Palmason, (links the ancestral lines together again).
Above: a map of the West Fjords of Northern Iceland, showing where the family locations are.
northern region on
Iceland’s northwest coast. top
My Grandfather Gudmundur Palmason Staumnes Lighthouse
(4) Gudmundur Palmason, b. 28. Jan. 1878, d. 21. Feb. 1951. Born in Rekavik bak Latur Hornstrandir Iceland, a farmer and lighthouse keeper of Straumnesvita. Married (4) Ketilridur Porkelsdottir, b. 18. Aug. 1875, d.18. Nov. 1925. (links the ancestral lines together again) Gudmundur became father to 18 children, 14 with his wife Ketilridur, after she died in 1925, he had 4 more with Bjarneyjar Andresdottir, his house keeper. The Straumnesvita lighthouse Gudmundur used to keep stands at the foot of Straumnes peninsula, the lighthouse helps ships to navigate around the Hornstrandir, which has some of the most dangerously rugged coast lines in the world, with mountains and steep cliffs up to 1700ft high. The picture above of Gudmundur was taken in Hall Yorkshire England, in about 1900. Because English is the main International Language for Lighthouse Keepers, it was in Hull that he learned to speak English.
Gudmundur Palmason children with Ketilridur
(1) Sigurdur Gudmundsson, b 27. Aug 1899, d. 1. April 1900. (2) Gudridur Palina Gudmundsdottir, b. 30. July 1900, d. 16. July 1921. (3) Messiana Gudmundsdottir, b. 11. Nov 1901, d. 11. Dec 1973. (4) Maria Gudmundsdottir, b. mar 1903, d. 24. April 1989. (5) Porkell Ingimar Gudmundsson, b. 26. Mar 1904, d. 24. July 1990. (6) Halldora Gumundsdottir, b. 30, may 1906, d. dec 1991. (7) Stefan Gudmundsson, 31. May 1906, d.6. June 1995. (8) Palmi Olafur Gudmundsson, 11. Aug 1907, d. 10. Oct 1964. (9) Svava Gudmundsdottir, 7. Jan 1909, d. 19. Oct 1940. (10) Karlotta Gudmundsdottir, 24. April 1910, d. 16. Feb 1982. (11) Borgar Gunnar Gudmundsson, 2. Sept 1911, d. 26. Nov 1985. (12) Hrolfur Gudmundsson, b. 30. Oct 1912, d. 16. May 1943. (13) Fridgeir Gudmundsson, b. 21. July 1916, d. 6. June 2001. (14) Asa Byron Gudmundsdottir, b. 27. Oct 1917, d 24. Jan 1994.
Gudmundur Palmason's children with Bjarneyjar
(15) Ingibjorg Ketilridur Gudmundsdottir, b. 17 june 1928. (16) Stella Gudmundsdottir, 27. May 1930. (17) Gudny Maria Sigridur Gudmundsdottir, 18. June 1932. (18) Magnus Porberg Gudmundsson, b. 23. Sept 1933.
The family home was in this fjord above at Rekavik bak Latur The village of Latrum in Adalvik BayRekavik bak Latur, as you can see in the picture above left, the fjord had very steep mountains each side of it, and with two lakes at the head of the fjord. The first and largest lake is separated by a shingled beech, the second and smallest lake has a strip of land separating it from the largest lake. It was an hours journey on horse back from Rekavik bak Latur to the nearest village of Latrum, once there my Grandparents would visit the stores to stock up with supplies, and it was also here that the children including my mother went to school. For travelling to and from the Hornstrandir, there was regular boat services from Latrumand Hesteyri to Isafjordur, and then from Isafjordur there were regular boat services to the capital Reykjavik, and other parts of the country. top
Above in Isafjordur. It was during the 1930’s that my mother Asa worked and lived here.
Now that my Grandparents ancestral lines have joined together again it will continue in black.
(3) Asa Byron Gudmundsdottir, b. 27. Oct. 1917. In Rekavik bak Latur Hornstrandir Iceland, d. 24. Jan. 1994, Bishops Stortford England. In about 1933 age 15, she left Rekavik bak Latur the family home to live in Isafjordur, and took a job as a house keeper for a dentist whose wife was disabled. One morning the dentist died of a heart attack. After the death of her husband, the dentist wife decided to move to Reykjavik to be close to her relatives, and Asa went with her. By the out break of World War 2, Asa had moved in to an apartment in Reykjavik with her sister Karlotta. They both got jobs as waitresses serving the British and American military servicemen based in Reykjavik. In 1945 at a dance in Reykjavik, she met Philip William Pearce, b. 26. Nov 1918, d. 25. Jan 1993. He was serving in the R.A.F. in Reykjavik, from Oct 1945 until Aug 1946 preparing for the R.A.F. withdrawal from Iceland. In June 1946 they were married in Reykjavik, then in august they left Iceland for England to settle in Bishops Stortford, it was here that they went on to have three children and one grandchild.
Above is a photo of my parents wedding day in Reykjavik and the Gullfoss (right) on which they sailed from Reykjavik (Iceland)
to Edinburgh Scotland on their way to England in August 1946.
The British Occupation of Iceland in 1940After the outbreak of World War 2, Iceland because of its location in the middle of the North Atlantic, was of great strategic importance, because of the threat to the shipping convoys between Britain and the United States. Fearing that the Germans would establish military bases in Iceland, the British decided to move first, sending a large force to occupy Iceland. Troops landed in Reykjavik early in the morning of May 10, 1940, and took full control of the country in a very short time. The Icelandic government protested strongly against this violation of the nation’s neutrality, but there was little more that an unarmed country could do. The prime minister broadcast an address to the Icelandic people to keep calm, regard the British soldiers as guests in their country and treat them accordingly. The British, for their part, declared they would not mingle in Icelandic affairs and would leave as soon as they could.
The arrival of the
British troops wrought a rapid,
radical and irreversible change upon life in Iceland. Commerce boomed,
and work was available for virtually everybody constructing barracks
and other buildings, roads, airfields and other facilities for the
forces. The great demand for manpower caused wages to rise,
unemployment disappeared almost overnight, and living standards rose.
Most of the troops were based in Reykjavik and the south, there was
also a considerable number in the north in and around Akureyri and in
the east and western part of the country. To lighten the war burden on
the British, the Americans took over the defence of Iceland in the
summer of 1941. Iceland agreed on condition that the Americans withdrew
all their forces as soon as the war was over, acknowledging the
independence of Iceland in all respects. By the summer of 1942 the last
units of the British army had withdrawn from Iceland, but the R.A.F.
bases at Reykjavik and Akureyri remained in Iceland until august 1946.
The dream of the Icelandic people about full freedom and independence
from Denmark, was realized under the shadow of World War 2, on the 17
June 1944, when Iceland became the Republic of
(2) Michael Philip Pearce, b. 20. July. 1950. Bishops Stortford Hertfordshire England. A Painter & Decorator, still living in Bishops Stortford.
Diana Asa Suava Pearce, b. 7. July. 1952. Bishops Stortford Hertfordshire England, d. 17. June. 1997. Harlow Essex. Married John Wheeler, b. 16. April. 1947, Southwark London. She was an Electronics assembler, but sadly died of cancer in 1997.
Brian, b. 9. May. 1954. Bishops Stortford Hertfordshire England. Married Paula, b. 4. May. 1966. Newcastle upon Tyne. He is also known as Busker Brian.
b. 7. Mar. 1991. Harlow Essex.
from Seabol to Hesteryi Hornstrandir Iceland in 2000.
THE GENEALOGY IS BY ORG aettfraedipjonustan ehf. REYKJAVIK ICELAND. www.simmet.is/org
THE HISTORICAL INFORMATION HAS BEEN RESEARCHED BY MICHAEL PHILIP PEARCE.